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International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE) Vol.5, No.1, March 2016, pp. 39 ~ 45 ISSN: 2252-8822 ❒ 39

The Roles of Teachers’ Work Motivation and Teachers’ Job Satisfaction in the Organizational Commitment in Extraordinary Schools

Fatwa Tentama, Dessy Pranungsari Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Article Info ABSTRACT

Article history:

Received Nov 26, 2015 Revised Jan 25, 2016 Accepted Feb 26, 2016

Journal homepage: http://iaesjournal.com/online/index.php/IJERE

Teachers’ work motivation and teachers’ job satisfaction are the factors influencing the organizational commitment. This research is aimed to empirically examine the roles of teachers’ work motivation and teachers’ job satisfaction in the commitment of the organization in extraordinary schools. The subjects of the research are the teachers in Extraordinary School 1 Bantul Yogyakarta. The sample was taken by employing non-randomized

Keyword:

technique. The scales of work motivation, job satisfaction and organizational commitment are used in collecting the data. The data were analyzed by using Job satisfaction Organizationl commitment Work motivation

multiple linear regression technique. Teachers’ job motivation more dominantly influence organizational commitment compared to teachers’ job satisfaction.

Copyright © 2016 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science. All rights reserved.

Corresponding Author:

Fatwa Tentama, Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Jalan Kapas No. 9, Semaki, Umbulharjo, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Email: fatwa.tentama@psy.uad.ac.id

1. INTRODUCTION

Human resources are one of valuable assets in an organization which determines the organization plan and executes every activity of the organization, as well as becoming the influential factor in achieving organization’s goals [1]. More importantly, it is the determining factor for the success of the organization [2]. Prefer [3] stated that the organization implementing the strategies to win the competition through their human resources has proven to be able to overtake other organizations implementing other strategies. Therefore, the organization efforts to win the competition and to achieve its goals can be done through maintaining, managing, and employing human resources effectively and optimally.

An organization considers the human resource commitment important, in this case the employees. Organizational commitment serves as the power of employees’ participation in an organization [4]. Organizational commitment reflects the dependency on the supervisor, the working group, the top management, and on the organization [5]. Meyer and Herscovitch [6] explained that organizational commitment refers to the emotional attachment, identification, and involvement of individuals in the organization, as well as the willingness to be always the member of the organization. Organizational commitment means the condition in which the employees are interested in the objectives, values, and targets of the organization [7].

The presence of highly-committed employees will lead the organization to a beneficial condition since they will work more effectively and will participate in any activities to maintain its survival. High commitment will encourage the employees to work hard in accomplishing their tasks in relation to their responsibility for the organization (extra-role behavior) and they are willing to carry out activities out of his

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responsibility (extra role work behavior) [8]. Koch and Steers concluded in his research that highly- committed employees will do their work better than those with low commitment. Lack of organizational commitment makes the employees unwilling to retain the job and thus they tend to leave it or turn over [9].

Nogueras [10] proposed that the improvement on three aspects of the organizational commitment will reduce the employees’ turnover in the United States of America. The three aspects are affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment [6]. Meyer and Allen [11] furthermore explained affective commitment attitude as the positive association towards individual activities in relation with the opportunities; continuance commitment as the judgement for the employees’ advantage and disadvantage in relation to their willingness to retain their work in the organization; and normative commitment as the employees’ obligation to serve clients professionally in any opportunities. In spite of the fact that organizational commitment is multi-dimensional, there has been few researches that examine those three components altogether. Most of the researches examined the influence of affective commitment and continuance commitment [12].

The employees’ contribution and involvement in organization would be greater when they feel they are supported by the organization [13]. The organization supports can improve their commitment in their job. It is even getting greater when they are provided with good working condition [14].

According to David [15], the factors affecting the organizational commitment are among others personal characteristics. In personal characteristics work motivation and job satisfaction are related to forming the commitment of the employees. La Sign proposed that job satisfaction plays important role in the commitment towards the organization [16]. This statement was supported by the results of interview and observation on the matter.

1.1. Teachers’ Work Motivation and Organizational Commitment

One of the key factors that influence the organizational commitment is the motivation related to the commitment formation [17]. According to George and Jones [18], it is said that work motivation refers to the psychological strength of certain individual, which determine his behavior in an organization, level of efforts and persistence in overcoming the problems, as well as self-determination towards the dimensions of their jobs. Motivation is the process that encourages, guides, maintains; as well as keeping the resources on the right track [19].

The focus on the goals of the organization reflects the behavior in relation to the job. For example, a motivated individual will do his best in accomplishing his tasks. It is expected by the organization that all the employees are highly motivated, thereby results in high-committed employees. The problems on motivation in certain individuals and the job circumstances have been the basic issues in an organization. It is reasonable since motivation is a significant variable in job performance and in the results of the performance that is achieved by any individual [20]. Work motivation can also become the expectation of every employee to be their driving force in achieving their goals [1].

Motivation may become the driving force of any individual, either physically or psychologically, to achieve one or more goals in fulfilling their needs or expectation [21]. According to Deci and Ryan [22], a motivated person is intrinsically able to enjoy his work, and this enjoyment can be seen in his behavior. Intrinsic motivation is the form of appreciation from an individual when he performs his jobs and finds satisfaction in doing it.

1.2. Teachers’ Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment

Job satisfaction is also the key factor influencing organizational commitment. Attitude at work, such as job satisfaction, serves as the component that affects the commitment towards the job [23] and is significantly correlated with organizational commitment [24]. Colquit, LePine, and Wesson in their research entitled Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior proposed that job satisfaction directly affects organizational commitment. Employees who are highly satisfied tend to have more concern with the organization and tend to be fully committed to the organization. Therefore, the organization, in which the employees are highly satisfied, is likely to improve their achievement and productivity, as well as reducing the rate of turnover. According to Tuhumena [25], less satisfied employees may lead to delays and absenteeism and thus hold back the organization’s production process. Cooper [26] suggested that the level of job satisfaction affects the rate of turnover, absenteeism, working group activities, and working perception, and thereby indicates the level of organizational commitment.

Kreitner and Kinichi [27] stated that job satisfaction refers to certain effectiveness or emotional responses towards various aspects of work. Nelson and Quick [28] proposed that job satisfaction is positive or excites emotional conditions stimulated by the evaluation and work experience. Schultz and Schultz [29] said that job satisfaction means the emotions and positive and negative attitudes towards the job.

IJERE Vol. 5, No. 1, March 2016 : 39 – 45

IJERE ISSN: 2252-8822 ❒

41

The phenomenon in the location of the research reflects the problems in relation to teachers’ work motivation and teachers’ job satisfaction in Extraordinary School 1 Bantul Yogyakarta that may influence the organizational commitment. This research is aimed to empirically examine the influence of teachers’ work motivation and teachers’ job satisfaction towards organizational commitment in the Extraordinary School.

2. RESEARCH METHODS 2.1. Research Subjects

The subjects of this research are 30 teachers in Extraordinary School 1 Bantul Yogyakarta. It applies non-randomized system of selecting the subject and is based on certain characteristics; those are (1) Civil Servant teachers; (2) permanent and active staffs in Extraordinary School 1 Bantul Yogyakarta; (3) employees having one year period of work; and (4) male or female. Among 30 subjects and scales, one of them could not be analyzed, and thus the subjects and scales fulfilling the requirements are 29.

2.2. Measurement Instruments

The organizational commitment is expressed in the commitment scales that refer to the aspects of commitment proposed by Allen and Meyer [30], namely affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment. Work motivation is expressed by using the scales of work motivation that refer to the aspects of work motivation proposed by Herzberg [20], those are security, advance, type of work, co- worker, company, supervisor, working hour, working condition, and benefit. Job satisfaction is expressed by using the scales of job satisfaction that refer to the aspects of job satisfaction proposed by Luthans (2008) [30], those are the work, salary or wage, supervisor, promotion, and co-workers. The items of the scales of organizational commitment, work motivation, and job satisfaction consist of four alternative answers, including “favorable” and “unfavorable” statements.

2.3. Validity and Reliability of the Instruments

The reliability of the scales are analyzed by using internal consistency method applying Cronbach alpha statistic formula, while the validity applies content validity approach and then the correlation of the total items is to be found. The analysis results of the experiments of 60 scale items of work motivation show that the results of reliability coefficient (α) is as much as 0.954, with the corrected item-total correlation that ranges from 0.316 to 0.862. 30 items considered as valid are used for the research.The analysis results of the experiments of 40 scale items of job satisfaction show that the results of reliability coefficient (α) is as much as 0.954, with the corrected item-total correlation that moves from 0.491 to 0.921. 20 items considered as valid are used for the research.The analysis results of the experiments of 36 scale items of organizational commitment show that the results of reliability coefficient (α) is as much as 0.905, with the corrected item- total correlation that moves from 0.452 to 0.713. 18 items considered as valid are used for the research.

2.4. Data Analysis

The data are analyzed using statistic parametric methods. The data analysis is conducted by using SPSS 17.0 for windows, by applying multiple regression technique, which is the continuation of product moment correlation, a statistic analysis technique to know the correlation between two independent variables (work motivation and job satisfaction) and one dependent variable (organizational commitment). The use of multiple regression analysis technique requires the variables to have normal distribution and linear correlation among them. Therefore, before the data are analyzed, the prerequisite test, including normality test and linearity test should be conducted.

3. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 3.1. Prerequisite Test 3.1.1. Normality Test

According to the results of the analysis of normality test listed in table 1, it is known that the significant values of the variables, i.e. organizational commitment, work motivation, and job satisfaction, reach 0.143, 0.616, and 0.411, respectively, with the p > 0.05. Thus, every data is normally distributed, reflecting that there is no difference between the distribution of the scores of the samples and the population. In other words, the samples can reflect the population.

The Roles of Teachers' Work Motivation and Teachers' Job Satisfaction in the .... (Fatwa Tentama)

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Table 1. Normality test of the Distribution Variables Score K-SZ Sig. Notes Organizational Commitment 1.149 0.143 Normal Work Motivation 0.756 0.616 Normal Job Motivation 0.887 0.411 Normal

3.1.2. Linearity Test

Table 2 and Table 3 show that the correlation between organizational commitment and work motivation of the teachers reach the score of F in linearity (F) as much as 16.297, with the significance (p) as much as 0.001 (p<0.05), which means there is a linier correlation or a straight line between those two variables. The test of the correlation between organizational commitment and teachers’ job satisfaction show the score of linearity (F) as much as 23.438, with the significant level (p) of 0.000 (p<0.05), which means there is a linear correlation or a straight line between both variables.

Table 2. Linearity Test between the Organizational Commitment and the Work Motivation ANOVA Table

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Commitment * Motivation

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Between Groups (Combined) 566.144 15 37.743 2.018 .105 Linearity 304.837 1 304.837 16.297 .001 Deviation from Linearity 261.307 14 18.665 .998 .504 Within Groups 243.167 13 18.705 Total 809.310 28

Tabel 3. Linearity Test of the Organizational Commitment and Work Satisfaction ANOVA Table

Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. Commitment* Satisfaction

Between Groups (Combined) 674.777 16 42.174 3.762 .013 Linearity 262.771 1 262.771 23.438 .000 Deviation from Linearity 412.006 15 27.467 2.450 .062 Within Groups 134.533 12 11.211 Total 809.310 28

3.2. Multiple Regression Test

It can be seen from Table 4 that the score of correlation coefficient between work motivation and organizational commitment (r

x1v

) is 0.614 and the probability p = 0.000 (p < 0.01), which means that there is significant positive correlation between the teachers’ work motivation with the organizational commitment in Extraordinary School. The higher the teachers’ work motivation is, the higher the teachers’ organizational commitment it will be. Conversely, the lower the teachers’ work motivation is, the lower the organizational commitment it will be.

Table 4. The Analysis results of the Relationship among Variables Correlations

Commitment Motivation Satisfaction Pearson Correlation Commitment 1.000 .614 .570 Work Motivation .614 1.000 .844 Job Satisfaction .570 .844 1.000 Sig. (1-tailed) Commitment . .000 .001 Work Motivation .000 . .000 Job Satisfaction .001 .000 . N Commitment 29 29 29 Work Motivation 29 29 29 Job Satisfaction 29 29 29

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Meanwhile, the score of correlation coefficient of the relationship between job satisfaction and organizational commitment (r

x2v

) is 0.570 and probability p = 0.001 (p<0.01), which means that there is significant positive correlation between teachers’ job satisfaction with the organizational commitment in Extraordinary School. The higher the teachers’ job satisfaction is, the higher the teachers’ organizational commitment it will be. Conversely, the lower the teachers’ job satisfaction is, the lower the organizational commitment it will be.

Table 5 and 6 show simultaneous influence of teachers’ work motivation and teachers’ job motivation towards organizational commitment with R Square value of 0.386. It means that there was an influence teachers’ work motivation and teachers’ job satisfaction as much as 38.6% towards organizational commitment. The rest percentage, as much as 61.4%, was influenced by other variables apart from the variables being studied. Having the Anova Test result F as much as 8.173 with the significance level of 0.002 (<0.01), the regression model can be used to predict the teachers’ organizational commitment in Extraordinary School. From the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that teachers’ work motivation and teachers’ job satisfaction simultaneously affect the teachers’ organizational commitment in Extraordinary School.

Table 5. Results of Multiple Regression Test (Model Summary) Model Summary

Model R R Square

Adjusted R Square

The Roles of Teachers' Work Motivation and Teachers' Job Satisfaction in the .... (Fatwa Tentama)

Std. Error of Change the Estimate

Statistics

R Square Change

F Change df1 df2 Sig. F Change

1 .621a .386 .339 4.372 .386 8.173 2 26 .002

Table 6. Results of Multiple Regression Test (Anova) ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 312.400 2 156.200 8.173 .002a

Residual 496.910 26 19.112 Total 809.310 28

The results above are supported by previous researches that are work motivation and job satisfaction affect organizational commitment [31]. One of the factors of employees’ commitment is the motivation related to the commitment [17]. Burton et al., [32] suggests that employees with high motivation will have a strong commitment also tothe organization. A motivation problem in individual life and at work is a basic problem. This is normal since motivation is an important variable at work and output of work achieved by an individual anywhere he works [22]. Besides, the leader of an organization is required to guide and is expected be a good role model for the employees, to motivate them. The leader should encourage his employees’ motivation and thus manifest their commitment to the organization.

Lam and Zang [33], who show factors of job satisfaction are significantly correlated with organizational commitment. Colquit, LePine, and Wesson, in their research entitled Integrative Model of Organizational Behavior explained that job satisfaction immediately affects the organizational commitment. Highly satisfied employees tend to concern more with the organization, and thus become more committed to the organization. In other words, satisfied workers in an organization will lead to increasing achievement, improved productivity, and less turn over.

The results of the research are relevant to Gunlu’s, Mehmed’s, and Percin’s opinion [24] which said that job satisfaction significantly influence the organizational commitment. Job satisfaction reflects a person’s feeling towards the job. A satisfied employee will be more committed to the organization [34]. Promising salaries and promotions can also affect the employees’ loyalty to the organization [35].

Maximally otivated and satisfied teachers allow the organization to achieve the goals more easily. As the resources of the educational institute for students with special needs, teachers are expected to show a good commitment in order to reach the vision, mission, and objectives of the education in Extraordinary School. Teachers of Extraordinary Schools as the facilitators in educating children with special needs, such as students with disabilities, deaf, mentally disabled, speech impaired, mentally retarded, ADHD, autism, aggressive, and others, need to have strong commitment as their first step in accomplishing their tasks. Besides, teachers who are already certified are expected to have better performance, commitment, and loyalty as professional teachers.

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The significance of the regression line shown in the regression formulation y^ = 27.159 + 0.266x

1

+ 0.145x

2

indicates that high organizational commitment can be predicted from high work motivation and high job satisfaction, thereby providing evidence that work motivation and job satisfaction have influence towards organizational commitment. The data is presented in standardized coefficients, reaching 0.266 and 0.145 (positive influence) respectively. The influence / effective contribution (SE-sumbangan efektif) of both variables, i.e. work motivation (SE

1

) and job satisfaction (SE

2

) to organizational commitment of the teachers in Extraordinary Schools reach 28.367 and 10.26 for SE

1

and SE

2

, respectively. Teachers’ work motivation has greater influence towards organizational commitment compared to the influence of teachers’ job satisfaction to it. However, both variables show that the problems of work motivation and job satisfaction in an organization become the point of emphasis in the efforts to overcome any organizational problems, especially organizational commitment of the teachers in Extraordinary School 1 Bantul Yogyakarta.

Work motivation and job satisfaction are not the only variables that influence teachers’ organizational commitment. From the results of this research, other variables can be influential factors to organizational commitment, such as personal characteristics (age, working period, level of education, gender, and race), job characteristics (clarity of duties, role suitability, and job challenges), structural characteristics, working experience, as well as natures and qualities of the experiences in the job [17].

4. CONCLUSSION

According to the results of the data analysis and discussion of this research, it can be concluded that simultaneously, teachers’ work motivation and satisfaction are significantly positive correlated with the organizational commitment. The higher the teachers’ work motivation and satisfaction they are, the higher the organizational commitment it will be. Reversely, the lower the teachers’ work motivation and satisfaction are, the lower the organizational commitment it will be. There is a high significant positive correlation between teachers’ work motivation and organizational commitment. The higher the teachers’ work motivation it is, the higher the organizational commitment it is, the lower the teachers’ work motivation, the lower the organizational commitment they will be. There is highly significant positive correlation between teachers’ job satisfaction with the organizational commitment. The higher the teachers’ job satisfaction it is, the higher the organizational commitment it will be; the lower teachers’ job satisfaction it is, the lower the organizational commitment it will be. Teachers’ work motivation and job satisfaction influence the organizational commitment as much as 38.6%; while 61.4% of the rest of the percentage was caused by other factors, apart from the variable sbeing studied. Teachers’ work motivation, compared to teachers’ job satisfaction, dominantly influence towards organizational commitment.

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The Roles of Teachers' Work Motivation and Teachers' Job Satisfaction in the .... (Fatwa Tentama)



INI NIH TERJEMAHAN JURNALNYA DALAM BAHASA INDONESIA


. International Journal of Evaluasi dan Penelitian Pendidikan (IJERE) Vol.5, No.1, Maret 2016, hlm 39 ~ 45 ISSN: 2252-8822 ❒ 39

Peran Guru Motivasi Kerja dan Guru 'Kepuasan Kerja di Komitmen Organisasi di Luar Biasa Sekolah

Fatwa Tentama, Dessy Pranungsari Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta,Indonesia

InfoPasal Abstraksi

Pasal sejarah:

Diterima Nov 26, 2015 Revisi Jan 25, 2016 Diterima Feb 26, 2016

homepage Journal: http://iaesjournal.com/online/index.php/IJERE

'motivasi kerja dan guruguru kepuasan kerja adalah faktor yang mempengaruhi komitmen organisasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji secara empiris peran motivasi kerja dan guru guru kepuasan kerja dalam komitmen organisasi di sekolah-sekolah luar biasa. Subyek penelitian ini adalah guru-guru di Sekolah Luar Biasa 1 Bantul Yogyakarta. Sampel diambil dengan menggunakannon-acak:

kata kunci

teknik. Timbangan motivasi kerja, kepuasan kerja dan komitmen organisasi digunakan dalam mengumpulkan data. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakanKepuasan kerja komitmen Organizationl Motivasikerja.

teknik regresi linier berganda Guru motivasi kerja yang lebih dominan mempengaruhi komitmen organisasi dibandingkan dengan guru kepuasan kerja.

Copyright © 2016 Institute of Advanced Engineering dan Ilmu. Semua hak dilindungiPenulis:.

Sesuai

Fatwa Tentama, Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Ahmad Dahlan, Jalan Kapas No 9, Semaki, Umbulharjo, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Email: fatwa.tentama@psy.uad.ac.id~~V

1.PENDAHULUAN

SumberManusia adalah salah satu aset berharga dalam suatu organisasi yang menentukan rencana organisasi dan melaksanakan setiap kegiatan organisasi, serta menjadi faktor yang berpengaruh dalam mencapai tujuan organisasi [1]. Lebih penting lagi, itu adalah faktor yang menentukan bagi keberhasilan organisasi [2]. Memilih [3] menyatakan bahwa organisasi melaksanakan strategi untuk memenangkan persaingan melalui sumber daya manusianya telah terbukti mampu menyalip organisasi lain menerapkan strategi lain. Oleh karena itu, upaya organisasi untuk memenangkan persaingan dan untuk mencapai tujuan dapat dilakukan melalui menjaga, mengelola, dan menggunakan sumber daya manusia secara efektif dan optimal.

Sebuah organisasi menganggap komitmen sumber daya manusia yang penting, dalam hal ini karyawan. Komitmen organisasi berfungsi sebagai kekuatan partisipasi karyawan dalam suatu organisasi [4]. Komitmen organisasi mencerminkan ketergantungan pada pengawas, kelompok kerja, manajemen puncak, dan pada organisasi [5]. Meyer dan Herscovitch [6] menjelaskan bahwa komitmen organisasi mengacu pada emosional lampiran, identifikasi, dan keterlibatan individu dalam organisasi, serta kemauan untuk selalu anggota organisasi. Komitmen organisasi berarti kondisi di mana karyawan tertarik tujuan, nilai-nilai, dan sasaran organisasi [7].

Kehadiran karyawan sangat-berkomitmen akan memimpin organisasi untuk kondisi menguntungkan karena mereka akan bekerja lebih efektif dan akan berpartisipasi dalam kegiatan apapun untuk mempertahankan kelangsungan hidupnya. Komitmen yang tinggi akan mendorong karyawan untuk bekerja keras dalam menyelesaikan tugas-tugas mereka dalam kaitannya dengan tanggung jawab mereka untuk organisasi (perilaku ekstra peran) dan mereka bersedia untuk melaksanakan kegiatan dari-Nya

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tanggung jawab (pekerjaan peran ekstra perilaku) [8]. Koch dan Steers menyimpulkan dalam penelitiannya bahwa sangat-karyawan berkomitmen akan melakukan pekerjaan mereka lebih baik dibandingkan dengan komitmen yang rendah. Kurangnya komitmen organisasi membuat karyawan tidak bersedia untuk mempertahankan pekerjaan dan dengan demikian mereka cenderung meninggalkan atau menyerahkan [9].

Nogueras [10] mengusulkan bahwa perbaikan pada tiga aspek komitmen organisasi akan mengurangi turnover karyawan di Inggris Serikat. Tiga aspek yang komitmen afektif, komitmen kontinyu, dan komitmen normatif [6]. Meyer dan Allen [11] selanjutnya menjelaskan sikap komitmen afektif sebagai asosiasi positif terhadap aktivitas individu dalam kaitannya dengan peluang; komitmen kontinyu sebagai penghakiman untuk keuntungan karyawan dan merugikan dalam kaitannya dengan kesediaan mereka untuk mempertahankan pekerjaan mereka dalam organisasi; dan komitmen normatif sebagai kewajiban karyawan untuk melayani klien secara profesional dalam kesempatan apapun. Terlepas dari kenyataan bahwa komitmen organisasi adalah multi-dimensi, telah ada beberapa penelitian yang meneliti tiga komponen sama sekali. Sebagian besar penelitian meneliti pengaruh komitmen afektif dan komitmen kontinyu [12].

Sumbangan karyawan dan keterlibatan dalam organisasi akan lebih besar ketika mereka merasa mereka didukung oleh organisasi [13]. Dukungan organisasi dapat meningkatkan komitmen mereka dalam pekerjaan mereka. Hal ini bahkan mendapatkan lebih besar ketika mereka diberikan dengan kondisi kerja yang baik [14].

Menurut David [15], faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi komitmen organisasi antara lain karakteristik pribadi. Dalam karakteristik pribadi motivasi kerja dan kepuasan kerja terkait dengan membentuk komitmen karyawan. La Sign mengusulkan bahwa kepuasan kerja memainkan peran penting dalam komitmen terhadap organisasi [16]. Pernyataan ini didukung oleh hasil wawancara dan observasi pada materi.

1.1. Guru Motivasi Kerja dan Komitmen Organisasi

Salah satu faktor utama yang mempengaruhi komitmen organisasi adalah motivasi terkait dengan pembentukan komitmen [17]. Menurut George dan Jones [18], dikatakan bahwa motivasi kerja mengacu pada kekuatan psikologis individu tertentu, yang menentukan perilaku dalam organisasi, tingkat upaya dan ketekunan dalam mengatasi masalah, serta penentuan nasib sendiri terhadap dimensi pekerjaan mereka. Motivasi adalah proses yang mendorong, panduan, memelihara; serta menjaga sumber daya di jalur yang benar [19].

Fokus pada tujuan organisasi mencerminkan perilaku dalam kaitannya dengan pekerjaan. Misalnya, seorang individu akan melakukan yang terbaik dalam menyelesaikan tugasnya. Diharapkan oleh organisasi bahwa semua karyawan bermotivasi tinggi, sehingga menghasilkan karyawan tinggi berkomitmen. Masalah pada motivasi pada individu tertentu dan keadaan pekerjaan telah menjadi masalah dasar dalam suatu organisasi. Hal ini wajar karena motivasi merupakan variabel yang signifikan dalam kinerja kerja dan dalam hasil kinerja yang dicapai oleh setiap individu [20]. Motivasi kerja juga bisa menjadi harapan setiap karyawan untuk menjadi kekuatan pendorong dalam mencapai tujuan mereka [1].

Motivasi dapat menjadi kekuatan pendorong dari setiap individu, baik secara fisik maupun psikologis, untuk mencapai satu atau lebih tujuan dalam memenuhi kebutuhan atau harapan mereka [21]. Menurut Deci dan Ryan [22], orang termotivasi secara intrinsik bisa menikmati pekerjaannya, dan kenikmatan ini dapat dilihat pada perilakunya. Motivasi intrinsik adalah bentuk apresiasi dari seorang individu ketika ia melakukan pekerjaan dan menemukan kepuasan dalam melakukannya.

1.2. Guru Kepuasan Kerja dan OrganisasiKomitmen

kepuasankerja juga merupakan faktor kunci yang mempengaruhi komitmen organisasi. Sikap di tempat kerja, seperti kepuasan kerja, berfungsi sebagai komponen yang mempengaruhi komitmen terhadap pekerjaan [23] dan secara signifikan berkorelasi dengan komitmen organisasi [24]. Colquit, Lepine, dan Wesson dalam penelitian mereka yang berjudul Model Integratif Perilaku Organisasi mengusulkan bahwa kepuasan kerja secara langsung mempengaruhi komitmen organisasi. Karyawan yang sangat puas cenderung memiliki lebih banyak perhatian dengan organisasi dan cenderung berkomitmen penuh untuk organisasi. Oleh karena itu, organisasi, di mana karyawan sangat puas, kemungkinan untuk meningkatkan prestasi dan produktivitas, serta mengurangi tingkat turnover. Menurut Tuhumena [25], karyawan kurang puas dapat menyebabkan penundaan dan absensi dan dengan demikian menahan proses produksi organisasi. Cooper [26] menyarankan bahwa tingkat kepuasan kerja mempengaruhi tingkat turnover, absensi, kegiatan kelompok kerja, dan persepsi bekerja, dan dengan demikian menunjukkan tingkat komitmen organisasi.

Kreitner dan Kinichi [27] menyatakan bahwa kepuasan kerja mengacu pada efektivitas tertentu atau respons emosional terhadap berbagai aspek pekerjaan. Nelson dan Cepat [28] mengusulkan bahwa kepuasan kerja adalah positif atau menggairahkan kondisi emosional dirangsang oleh evaluasi dan pengalaman kerja. Schultz dan Schultz [29] mengatakan bahwa kepuasan kerja berarti emosi dan sikap positif dan negatif terhadap pekerjaan.

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Fenomena di lokasi penelitian mencerminkan masalah dalam hubungannya dengan motivasi kerja dan guru guru kepuasan kerja di Sekolah Luar Biasa 1 Bantul Yogyakarta yang dapat mempengaruhi komitmen organisasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji secara empiris pengaruh motivasi kerja dan guru guru kepuasan kerja terhadap komitmen organisasi di Sekolah Luar Biasa.

2. METODE PENELITIAN 2.1. Subyek penelitian

Subyek penelitian ini adalah 30 guru di Sekolah Luar Biasa 1 Bantul Yogyakarta. Ini berlaku sistem non-acak memilih subjek dan didasarkan pada karakteristik tertentu; yaitu (1) guru Pegawai Negeri Sipil; (2) karyawan tetap dan aktif di Sekolah Luar Biasa 1 Bantul Yogyakarta; (3) karyawan memiliki satu periode tahun kerja; dan (4) laki-laki atau perempuan. Di antara 30 mata pelajaran dan skala, salah satu dari mereka tidak dapat dianalisis, dan dengan demikian subyek dan timbangan memenuhi persyaratan 29.

2.2. Pengukuran

Instrumenkomitmen organisasi dinyatakan dalam skala komitmen yang mengacu pada aspek komitmen yang diusulkan oleh Allen dan Meyer [30], yaitu komitmen afektif, komitmen kontinyu, dan komitmen normatif. Motivasi kerja dinyatakan dengan menggunakan skala motivasi kerja yang mengacu pada aspek motivasi kerja yang diusulkan oleh Herzberg [20], yaitu keamanan, muka, jenis pekerjaan, rekan kerja, perusahaan, atasan, jam kerja, kondisi kerja, dan manfaat. Kepuasan kerja dinyatakan dengan menggunakan skala kepuasan kerja yang mengacu pada aspek kepuasan kerja yang diusulkan oleh Luthans (2008) [30], mereka adalah pekerjaan, gaji atau upah, supervisor, promosi, dan rekan kerja. Item dari skala komitmen organisasi, motivasi kerja, dan kepuasan kerja terdiri dari empat alternatif jawaban, termasuk "menguntungkan" dan "tidak menguntungkan" pernyataan.

2.3. Validitas dan Keandalan dari

Instrumenkeandalan timbangan dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode konsistensi internal menerapkan rumus Alpha Cronbach statistik, sedangkan validitas menggunakan pendekatan validitas isi dan kemudian korelasi total item dapat ditemukan. Hasil analisis percobaan dari 60 item skala motivasi kerja menunjukkan bahwa hasil koefisien reliabilitas (α) adalah sebanyak 0,954, dengan item-total korelasi dikoreksi yang berkisar 0,316-0,862. 30 item dianggap sebagai valid digunakan untuk hasil analisis research.The percobaan dari 40 item skala kepuasan kerja menunjukkan bahwa hasil koefisien reliabilitas (α) adalah sebanyak 0,954, dengan item-total korelasi dikoreksi yang bergerak dari 0,491-0,921. 20 item dianggap sebagai valid digunakan untuk hasil analisis research.The percobaan dari 36 item skala komitmen organisasi menunjukkan bahwa hasil koefisien reliabilitas (α) adalah sebanyak 0,905 dengan total korelasi item- dikoreksi yang bergerak dari 0,452-0,713. 18 item dianggap sebagai valid digunakan untuk penelitian.

2.4. Analisis Data

Data dianalisis menggunakan metode statistik parametrik. Analisis data dilakukan dengan menggunakan SPSS 17.0 for windows, dengan menerapkan teknik regresi berganda, yang merupakan kelanjutan dari korelasi product moment, teknik analisis statistik untuk mengetahui hubungan antara dua variabel independen (motivasi kerja dan kepuasan kerja) dan satu variabel dependen (komitmen berorganisasi). Penggunaan teknik analisis regresi berganda memerlukan variabel memiliki distribusi normal dan korelasi linear antara mereka. Oleh karena itu, sebelum data dianalisis, tes prasyarat, termasuk uji normalitas dan uji linearitas harus dilakukan.

3. HASIL DAN ANALISIS 3.1. Prasyarat Uji 3.1.1. Uji Normalitas

Menurut hasil analisis uji normalitas tercantum dalam tabel 1, diketahui bahwa nilai-nilai yang signifikan dari variabel, yaitu komitmen organisasi, motivasi kerja, dan kepuasan kerja, mencapai 0,143, 0,616, dan 0,411, masing-masing, dengan p> 0,05. Dengan demikian, setiap data yang terdistribusi normal, mencerminkan bahwa tidak ada perbedaan antara distribusi skor dari sampel dan populasi. Dengan kata lain, sampel dapat mencerminkan populasiISSN:.

Peran Guru Motivasi Kerja dan Guru 'Kepuasan Kerja di .... (Fatwa Tentama)

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Tabel 1. Uji Normalitas Distribusi Variabel Skor K-SZ Sig. Catatan Komitmen Organisasi 1,149 0,143 normal Motivasi Kerja 0,756 0,616 normal Motivasi Kerja 0,887 0,411 normal

3.1.2. Linearitas Uji

Tabel 2 dan Tabel 3 menunjukkan bahwa korelasi antara komitmen organisasi dan motivasi dari para guru bekerja mencapai skor F di linearitas (F) sebanyak 16,297, dengan signifikansi (p) sebesar 0,001 (p <0,05) , yang berarti ada hubungan linier atau garis lurus antara dua variabel. Uji korelasi antara komitmen organisasi dan kepuasan kerja guru menunjukkan skor linearitas (F) sebanyak 23,438, dengan tingkat signifikan (p) sebesar 0,000 (p <0,05), yang berarti ada hubungan linier atau garis lurus antara kedua variabel.

Tabel 2. Linearitas Uji antara Komitmen Organisasi dan Motivasi Kerja ANOVA Table

Sum of Squares df mean Square F Sig. Komitmen * Motivasi

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Antara Groups (Combined) 566,144 15 37,743 2,018 0,105 Linearitas 304,837 1 304,837 16,297 0,001 Penyimpangan dari Linearitas 261,307 14 18,665 0,998 0,504 Dalam Grup 243,167 13 18,705 Jumlah 809,310 28

Tabel 3 . Linearitas Uji Komitmen Organisasi dan Kerja Kepuasan ANOVA Table

Sum of Squares df mean Square F Sig. Komitmen * Kepuasan

Antara Groups (Combined) 674,777 16 42,174 3,762 0,013 Linearitas 262,771 1 262,771 23,438 0,000 Penyimpangan dari Linearitas 412,006 15 27,467 2,450 0,062 Dalam Grup 134,533 12 11,211 Jumlah 809,310 28

3.2. Beberapa Uji Regresi

Hal ini dapat dilihat dari Tabel 4 bahwa skor koefisien korelasi antara motivasi kerja dan komitmen organisasi (r

x1v)

adalah 0.614 dan probabilitas p = 0,000 (p <0,01), yang berarti bahwa ada hubungan positif yang signifikan antara motivasi kerja guru dengan komitmen organisasi di Sekolah Luar Biasa. Semakin tinggi guru motivasi kerja, semakin tinggi guru komitmen organisasi akan. Sebaliknya, semakin rendah motivasi kerja guru adalah, semakin rendah komitmen organisasi akan.

Tabel 4. Hasil Analisis Hubungan antara Variabel Korelasi

Komitmen Motivasi Kepuasan Pearson Correlation Komitmen 1,000 0,614 0,570 Motivasi Kerja 0,614 1,000 0,844 Kepuasan Kerja 0,570 0,844 1,000 Sig. (1-tailed) Komitmen. 0,000 0,001 Motivasi Kerja 0,000. Kepuasan 0,000 Kerja 0,001 0,000. N Komitmen 29 29 29 Motivasi Kerja 29 29 29 Kepuasan Kerja 29 29 29

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Sementara itu, skor koefisien korelasi hubungan antara kepuasan kerja dan komitmen organisasi (r

x2v)

adalah 0.570 dan probabilitas p = 0,001 (p <0,01), yang berarti bahwa ada hubungan positif yang signifikan antara kepuasan kerja guru dengan komitmen organisasi di Sekolah Luar Biasa. Semakin tinggi guru kepuasan kerja adalah, semakin tinggi guru komitmen organisasi akan. Sebaliknya, semakin rendah guru kepuasan kerja adalah, semakin rendah komitmen organisasi akan.

Tabel 5 dan 6 menunjukkan pengaruh simultan dari guru motivasi kerja dan motivasi kerja guru terhadap komitmen organisasi dengan nilai R Square 0.386. Ini berarti bahwa ada 'motivasi kerja dan guru pengaruh guru kepuasan kerja sebanyak 38,6% terhadap komitmen organisasi. Persentase sisanya, sebanyak 61,4%, dipengaruhi oleh variabel lain selain variabel yang diteliti. Memiliki Uji Anova menghasilkan F sebanyak 8.173 dengan tingkat signifikansi 0,002 (<0,01), model regresi dapat digunakan untuk memprediksi komitmen organisasi guru di Sekolah Luar Biasa. Dari hasil analisis, dapat disimpulkan bahwa motivasi kerja dan guru guru kepuasan kerja secara simultan berpengaruh komitmen organisasi guru di Sekolah Luar Biasa.

Tabel 5. Hasil Regresi Uji (Model Summary) Model Summary

Model RR Square,

Disesuaikan R Square

Peran Guru Motivasi Kerja dan Guru 'Kepuasan Kerja di .... (Fatwa Tentama)

Std. Kesalahan Mengubah Estimate

Statistik

R Square Ganti

F Ganti DF1 df2 Sig. F Ganti

1 .621a 0,386 0,339 4,372 0,386 8,173 2 26 0,002

Tabel 6. Hasil Regresi Uji (Anova) ANOVAb Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regresi 312,400 2 156,200 8,173 .002a

Residual 496,910 26 19,112 Jumlah 809,310 28

Hasil di atas didukung oleh penelitian sebelumnya yang motivasi kerja dan kepuasan kerja mempengaruhi komitmen organisasi [31]. Salah satu faktor komitmen karyawan adalah motivasi yang berkaitan dengan komitmen [17]. Burton et al., [32] menunjukkan bahwa karyawan dengan motivasi tinggi akan memiliki komitmen yang kuat organisasi juga tertalu. Masalah motivasi dalam kehidupan individu dan di tempat kerja adalah masalah dasar. Ini normal karena motivasi merupakan variabel penting di tempat kerja dan output kerja yang dicapai oleh seorang individu di mana saja dia bekerja [22]. Selain itu, pemimpin organisasi diperlukan untuk membimbing dan diharapkan menjadi panutan yang baik bagi karyawan, untuk memotivasi mereka. Pemimpin harus mendorong motivasi karyawan dan dengan demikian mewujudkan komitmen mereka untuk organisasi.

Lam dan Zang [33], yang menunjukkan faktor kepuasan kerja secara signifikan berkorelasi dengan komitmen organisasi. Colquit, Lepine, dan Wesson, dalam penelitian mereka yang berjudul Model Integratif Perilaku Organisasi menjelaskan bahwa kepuasan kerja segera mempengaruhi komitmen organisasi. Karyawan sangat puas cenderung lebih peduli dengan organisasi, dan dengan demikian menjadi lebih berkomitmen untuk organisasi. Dengan kata lain, pekerja puas dalam suatu organisasi akan menyebabkan peningkatan prestasi, peningkatan produktivitas, dan kurang turn over.

Hasil penelitian ini relevan dengan Gunlu ini, Mehmed ini, dan opini Percin ini [24] yang mengatakan bahwa kepuasan kerja berpengaruh signifikan terhadap organisasi komitmen. Kepuasan kerja mencerminkan perasaan seseorang terhadap pekerjaan. Seorang pegawai yang puas akan lebih berkomitmen untuk organisasi [34]. Gaji menjanjikan dan promosi juga dapat mempengaruhi loyalitas karyawan kepada organisasi [35].

Maksimal otivated dan guru puas memungkinkan organisasi untuk mencapai tujuan dengan lebih mudah. Sebagai sumber dari lembaga pendidikan bagi siswa dengan kebutuhan khusus, guru diharapkan untuk menunjukkan komitmen yang baik untuk mencapai visi, misi, dan tujuan pendidikan di Sekolah Luar Biasa. Guru Sekolah Luar Biasa sebagai fasilitator dalam mendidik anak-anak dengan kebutuhan khusus, seperti siswa penyandang cacat, tuna rungu, tuna grahita, tuna wicara, retardasi mental, ADHD, autisme, agresif, dan lain-lain, harus memiliki komitmen yang kuat sebagai langkah pertama mereka di menyelesaikan tugas-tugas mereka. Selain itu, guru yang sudah bersertifikat diharapkan memiliki kinerja yang lebih baik, komitmen, dan loyalitas sebagai guru profesionalISSN:.

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Arti penting dari garis regresi ditampilkan dalam perumusan regresi y ^ = 27,159 + 0.266x

1

+ 0,145 x

2

menunjukkan bahwa komitmen organisasi yang tinggi dapat diprediksi dari motivasi kerja yang tinggi dan kepuasan kerja yang tinggi, sehingga memberikan bukti bahwa motivasi kerja dan kepuasan kerja memiliki pengaruh terhadap komitmen organisasi. Data yang disajikan dalam koefisien standar, mencapai 0.266 dan 0.145 (pengaruh positif) masing-masing. Pengaruh / efektif kontribusi (SE-Sumbangan Efektif) dari kedua variabel, yaitu motivasi kerja (SE

1)

dan kepuasan kerja (SE

2)

untuk komitmen organisasi guru di Sekolah Luar Biasa mencapai 28,367 dan 10,26 untuk SE

1

dan SE

2,

masing-masing . Guru motivasi kerja memiliki pengaruh yang lebih besar terhadap komitmen organisasi dibandingkan dengan pengaruh guru kepuasan kerja untuk itu. Namun, kedua variabel menunjukkan bahwa masalah motivasi kerja dan kepuasan kerja dalam organisasi menjadi titik penekanan dalam upaya untuk mengatasi masalah organisasi, terutama komitmen organisasi guru di Sekolah Luar Biasa 1 Bantul Yogyakarta.

Motivasi kerja dan kepuasan kerja yang bukan satu-satunya variabel yang mempengaruhi komitmen organisasi guru. Dari hasil penelitian ini, variabel lainnya dapat menjadi faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap komitmen organisasi, seperti karakteristik pribadi (umur, masa kerja, tingkat pendidikan, jenis kelamin, dan ras), karakteristik pekerjaan (kejelasan tugas, kesesuaian peran, dan tantangan pekerjaan ), karakteristik struktural, pengalaman, serta sifat dan kualitas dari pengalaman bekerja di pekerjaan [17].

4. Kesimpulan

Menurut hasil analisis data dan pembahasan penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa secara simultan, motivasi kerja guru dan kepuasan secara signifikan positif berkorelasi dengan komitmen organisasi. Semakin tinggi motivasi kerja guru dan kepuasan mereka, semakin tinggi komitmen organisasi akan. Reversely, motivasi kerja yang rendah guru dan kepuasan adalah, semakin rendah komitmen organisasi akan. Ada tinggi korelasi positif yang signifikan antara motivasi kerja guru dan komitmen organisasi. Semakin tinggi motivasi kerja itu, semakin tinggi komitmen organisasi itu, semakin rendah guru guru motivasi kerja, semakin rendah komitmen organisasi mereka akan. Ada korelasi positif yang sangat signifikan antara kepuasan kerja guru dengan komitmen organisasi. Semakin tinggi guru kepuasan kerja itu, semakin tinggi komitmen organisasi akan; guru lebih rendah 'kepuasan kerja itu, semakin rendah komitmen organisasi akan. Motivasi kerja guru dan kepuasan kerja mempengaruhi komitmen organisasi sebanyak 38,6%; sedangkan 61,4% dari sisa persentase itu disebabkan oleh faktor-faktor lain, selain dari sbeing variabel yang diteliti. 'Motivasi kerja, dibandingkan dengan guru guru kepuasan kerja, pengaruh dominan terhadap komitmen organisasi.

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2007.Peran Guru 'Motivasi Kerja dan Guru' Kepuasan Kerja di .... (Fatwa Tentama)

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